To use the words of Our immortal predecessor, Pope Leo XIII: "His empire includes not only Catholic nations, not only baptized persons who, though of right belonging to the Church, have been led astray by error, or have been cut off from her by schism, but also all those who are outside the Christian faith; so that truly the whole of mankind is subject to the power of Jesus Christ. If to Christ our Lord is given all power in heaven and on earth; if all men, purchased by his precious blood, are by a new right subjected to his dominion; if this power embraces all men, it must be clear that not one of our faculties is exempt from his empire. "[21] We are no longer our own property, for Christ has purchased us "with a great price";[22] our very bodies are the "members of Christ."[23]. For it is only as man that he may be said to have received from the Father "power and glory and a kingdom,"[2] since the Word of God, as consubstantial with the Father, has all things in common with him, and therefore has necessarily supreme and absolute dominion over all things created. 13. It is Our fervent desire, Venerable Brethren, that those who are without the fold may seek after and accept the sweet yoke of Christ, and that we, who by the mercy of God are of the household of the faith, may bear that yoke, not as a burden but with joy, with love, with devotion; that having lived our lives in accordance with the laws of God's kingdom, we may receive full measure of good fruit, and counted by Christ good and faithful servants, we may be rendered partakers of eternal bliss and glory with him in his heavenly kingdom. At the time of his death, Pius XI was reviewing an early version of an additional encyclical, … The church's teaching affects the mind primarily; her feasts affect both mind and heart, and have a salutary effect upon the whole of man's nature. 15. Encyclical Casti Connubii of Pius XI, 31 December 1932 : Pius XI Encyclicals [ EN - ES - FR - HU - IT - LA] CASTI CONNUBII. It was then put under the power of the state and tolerated more or less at the whim of princes and rulers. Pope Pius XI - 1925 ON THE FEAST OF CHRIST THE KING To Our Venerable Brethren the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and other Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with the Apostolic … There were even some nations who thought they could dispense with God, and that their religion should consist in impiety and the neglect of God. He is King of hearts, too, by reason of his "charity which exceedeth all knowledge." The gospels present this kingdom as one which men prepare to enter by penance, and cannot actually enter except by faith and by baptism, which, though an external rite, signifies and produces an interior regeneration. And he gave him power and glory and a kingdom: and all peoples, tribes, and tongues shall serve him. It was surely right, then, in view of the common teaching of the sacred books, that the Catholic Church, which is the kingdom of Christ on earth, destined to be spread among all men and all nations, should with every token of veneration salute her Author and Founder in her annual liturgy as King and Lord, and as King of Kings. OTHER ENCYCLICALS OF POPE PIUS XII Encyclicals on Christ the King: Pope St. Pius X E SUPREMI: On the Restoration of All Things in Christ Pope St. Pius XI QUAS PRIMAS: On the Feast of Christ the King … Therefore by Our Apostolic Authority We institute the Feast of the Kingship of Our Lord Jesus Christ to be observed yearly throughout the whole world on the last Sunday of the month of October - the Sunday, that is, which immediately precedes the Feast of All Saints. When the populace thronged around him in admiration and would have acclaimed him King, he shrank from the honor and sought safety in flight. St. Peter’s Basilica.org says the following about Pius XI. Let Us explain briefly the nature and meaning of this lordship of Christ. It should be remarked also that much has been done for the recognition of Christ's authority over society by the frequent Eucharistic Congresses which are held in our age. From this it follows not only that Christ is to be adored by angels and men, but that to him as man angels and men are subject, and must recognize his empire; by reason of the hypostatic union Christ has power over all creatures. The rule of faith is indicated by the law of our worship. Wed Aug 22, 2018 - 5:49 pm EST In the first Encyclical Letter which We addressed at the beginning of Our Pontificate to the Bishops of the universal Church, We referred to the chief causes of the difficulties under which mankind was laboring. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_encyclicals_of_Pope_Pius_XI&oldid=978320210, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, On the Persecution of the Church in Mexico, On the Reconstruction of the Social Order, On the Persecution of the Church in Spain, This page was last edited on 14 September 2020, at 05:45. It will call to their minds the thought of the last judgment, wherein Christ, who has been cast out of public life, despised, neglected and ignored, will most severely avenge these insults; for his kingly dignity demands that the State should take account of the commandments of God and of Christian principles, both in making laws and in administering justice, and also in providing for the young a sound moral education. We firmly hope, however, that the feast of the Kingship of Christ, which in future will be yearly observed, may hasten the return of society to our loving Savior. "For neither doth the Father judge any man; but hath given all judgment to the Son. The perfect harmony of the Eastern liturgies with our own in this continual praise of Christ the King shows once more the truth of the axiom: Legem credendi lex statuit supplicandi. “Pope Pius XI further emphasized the fundamental opposition between Communism and Christianity, and made it clear that no Catholic could subscribe even to moderate Socialism. "[9] And again he says: "I beheld, therefore, in the vision of the night, and, lo! "With God and Jesus Christ," we said, "excluded from political life, with authority derived not from God but from man, the very basis of that authority has been taken away, because the chief reason of the distinction between ruler and subject has been eliminated. And, in fact, she used these titles, giving expression with wonderful variety of language to one and the same concept, both in ancient psalmody and in the Sacramentaries. Oh, what happiness would be Ours if all men, individuals, families, and nations, would but let themselves be governed by Christ! It is by a divine inspiration that the people of Christ bring forth Jesus from his silent hiding-place in the church, and carry him in triumph through the streets of the city, so that he whom men refused to receive when he came unto his own, may now receive in full his kingly rights. Apostolic Constitutions; Apostolic Letters; Biography Moreover, Christ himself speaks of his own kingly authority: in his last discourse, speaking of the rewards and punishments that will be the eternal lot of the just and the damned; in his reply to the Roman magistrate, who asked him publicly whether he were a king or not; after his resurrection, when giving to his Apostles the mission of teaching and baptizing all nations, he took the opportunity to call himself king,[13] confirming the title publicly,[14] and solemnly proclaimed that all power was given him in heaven and on earth. We were led in the meantime to indulge the hope of a brighter future at the sight of a more widespread and keener interest evinced in Christ and his Church, the one Source of Salvation, a sign that men who had formerly spurned the rule of our Redeemer and had exiled themselves from his kingdom were preparing, and even hastening, to return to the duty of obedience. 6. "[5] There are many similar passages, but there is one in which Christ is even more clearly indicated. He must reign in our wills, which should obey the laws and precepts of God. Executive power, too, belongs to Christ, for all must obey his commands; none may escape them, nor the sanctions he has imposed. Before the Roman magistrate he declared that his kingdom was not of this world. Pius XI, original name Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, (born May 31, 1857, Desio, Lombardy, Austrian Empire [now in Italy]—died February 10, 1939, Rome, Italy), Italian pope from 1922 to 1939, one of the … encyclical of pope pius xi on christian education to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, and other ordinaries in peace and … This year, however, We desire that it be observed on the thirty-first day of the month on which day We Ourselves shall celebrate pontifically in honor of the kingship of Christ, and shall command that the same dedication be performed in Our presence. 2. 29. 20. Thus in the earliest days of the Christian era, when the people of Christ were suffering cruel persecution, the cult of the martyrs was begun in order, says St. Augustine, "that the feasts of the martyrs might incite men to martyrdom. Non eripit mortalia qui regna dat caelestia. Men will sheathe their swords and lay down their arms when all freely acknowledge and obey the authority of Christ, and every tongue confesses that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father."[33]. 26. For the first time the word "Laicism" (which means irreligious teaching) is to be found in a Pontifical document; it is the fatal and sought for result of both the Masonic doctrine and its direct action. [27], 18. the "encyclical" to public attention, with various publications com menting on it,5 its existence has been long known. All those who in the course of the Holy Year have thronged to this city under the leadership of their Bishops or priests had but one aim - namely, to expiate their sins - and at the tombs of the Apostles and in Our Presence to promise loyalty to the rule of Christ. "[30] If, therefore, the rulers of nations wish to preserve their authority, to promote and increase the prosperity of their countries, they will not neglect the public duty of reverence and obedience to the rule of Christ. It would be the duty of Catholics to do all they can to bring about this happy result. The author of thirty encyclicals… Our Lord's regal office invests the human authority of princes and rulers with a religious significance; it ennobles the citizen's duty of obedience. Ingravescentibus Malis - On the Rosary - 9.29.1937; Firmissimam Constantiam - On the religious situation in Mexico - 3.28.1937; There is a special reason for this in that the Nicene Synod defined and proposed for Catholic belief the dogma of the Consubstantiality of the Onlybegotten with the Father, and added to the Creed the words "of whose kingdom there shall be no end," thereby affirming the kingly dignity of Christ. 33. Those who keep them show their love for their Divine Master, and he promises that they shall remain in his love. Pius XI issued 31 papal encyclicals during his reign as pope and was considering one at his death. 21. On Atheistic Communism Pope Pius XI - 1937 To the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and other Ordinaries in Peace and Communion with the Apostolic See. But a thought that must give us even greater joy and consolation is this that Christ is our King by acquired, as well as by natural right, for he is our Redeemer. If the kingdom of Christ, then, receives, as it should, all nations under its way, there seems no reason why we should despair of seeing that peace which the King of Peace came to bring on earth - he who came to reconcile all things, who came not to be ministered unto but to minister, who, though Lord of all, gave himself to us as a model of humility, and with his principal law united the precept of charity; who said also: "My yoke is sweet and my burden light." "[28] Nor is there any difference in this matter between the individual and the family or the State; for all men, whether collectively or individually, are under the dominion of Christ. PIUS XI. The result will be a stable peace and tranquillity, for there will be no longer any cause of discontent. She uses them daily now in the prayers publicly offered to God, and in offering the Immaculate Victim. He shall sit upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom; to establish it and strengthen it with judgment and with justice, from henceforth and for ever. Peace and harmony, too, will result; for with the spread and the universal extent of the kingdom of Christ men will become more and more conscious of the link that binds them together, and thus many conflicts will be either prevented entirely or at least their bitterness will be diminished. 3. Condemning Current Errors Pope Pius IX (December 8, 1864) Summary: This encyclical letter of Pope Pius IX was promulgated in 1864, and the attached Syllabus of Errors was … The Archangel, announcing to the Virgin that she should bear a Son, says that "the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father, and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end. It demands of its subjects a spirit of detachment from riches and earthly things, and a spirit of gentleness. A still further light of glory was shed upon his kingdom, when after due proof of their heroic virtue, We raised to the honors of the altar six confessors and virgins. The foundation of this power and dignity of Our Lord is rightly indicated by Cyril of Alexandria. Some men went even further, and wished to set up in the place of God's religion a natural religion consisting in some instinctive affection of the heart. It will be for you later to explain in a manner suited to the understanding of the faithful what We are about to say concerning the Kingship of Christ, so that the annual feast which We shall decree may be attended with much fruit and produce beneficial results in the future. Given at St. Peter's Rome, on the eleventh day of the month of December, in the Holy Year 1925, the fourth of Our Pontificate. 8. We saw men and nations cut off from God, stirring up strife and discord and hurrying along the road to ruin and death, while the Church of God carries on her work of providing food for the spiritual life of men, nurturing and fostering generation after generation of men and women dedicated to Christ, faithful and subject to him in his earthly kingdom, called by him to eternal bliss in the kingdom of heaven. In the summer of 1938 Pius XI publicly made reference to it.6 Father John LaFarge, S.J., who was assigned the task of writing the encyclical by Pius XI … Venerable Brethren, Greetings, and … He took as his papal motto "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ." We lamented these in the Encyclical Ubi arcano; we lament them today: the seeds of discord sown far and wide; those bitter enmities and rivalries between nations, which still hinder so much the cause of peace; that insatiable greed which is so often hidden under a pretense of public spirit and patriotism, and gives rise to so many private quarrels; a blind and immoderate selfishness, making men seek nothing but their own comfort and advantage, and measure everything by these; no peace in the home, because men have forgotten or neglect their duty; the unity and stability of the family undermined; society in a word, shaken to its foundations and on the way to ruin. Pope Pius XI. "[8] So, too, Daniel, who announces the kingdom that the God of heaven shall found, "that shall never be destroyed, and shall stand for ever. For people are instructed in the truths of faith, and brought to appreciate the inner joys of religion far more effectually by the annual celebration of our sacred mysteries than by any official pronouncement of the teaching of the Church. "[32] If princes and magistrates duly elected are filled with the persuasion that they rule, not by their own right, but by the mandate and in the place of the Divine King, they will exercise their authority piously and wisely, and they will make laws and administer them, having in view the common good and also the human dignity of their subjects. His power is an everlasting power that shall not be taken away, and his kingdom shall not be destroyed. pius xi encyclicals [ en - es - fr - it - la - pt] divini illius magistri. Pope Pius XI in photograph taken on December 31, 1929 by Alberto Felici [Wikipedia] Eighty-three years ago this week, Pope Pius XI issued two encyclicals condemning two of the most … "Neither is there salvation in any other, for there is no other name under heaven given to men whereby we must be saved. This prophetic encyclical from Pope Pius XI is an essential manual for spouses today John Lacken's stirring talk from the Conference of Catholic Families. This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope Pius XI. Venerable Brethren, Health and … They have seen how many countries have been won to the Catholic name through the unremitting labor and self-sacrifice of missionaries, and the vastness of the regions which have yet to be subjected to the sweet and saving yoke of our King. 28. Nations will be reminded by the annual celebration of this feast that not only private individuals but also rulers and princes are bound to give public honor and obedience to Christ. And his mercy and kindness[1] which draw all men to him, for never has it been known, nor will it ever be, that man be loved so much and so universally as Jesus Christ. This matter is so dear to Our heart, Venerable Brethren, that I would wish to address to you a few words concerning it. The many notable and memorable events which have occurred during this Holy Year have given great honor and glory to Our Lord and King, the Founder of the Church. Venerable Brethren, Health and … one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven. Pius XII promulgated 41 papal encyclicals, during his reign as pope for over 19 years, from his election of March 2, 1939, until his death on October 9, 1958. Is it not evident, then, that his kingly dignity partakes in a manner of both these offices? But if the faithful were generally to understand that it behooves them ever to fight courageously under the banner of Christ their King, then, fired with apostolic zeal, they would strive to win over to their Lord those hearts that are bitter and estranged from him, and would valiantly defend his rights. ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XI ON THE FEAST OF CHRIST THE KING TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, … 4. It would be a grave error, on the other hand, to say that Christ has no authority whatever in civil affairs, since, by virtue of the absolute empire over all creatures committed to him by the Father, all things are in his power. It is not necessary, Venerable Brethren, that We should explain to you at any length why We have decreed that this feast of the Kingship of Christ should be observed in addition to those other feasts in which his kingly dignity is already signified and celebrated. Encyclicals. With reference to Communism, Our Venerable Predecessor, Pius IX, of holy memory, as early as 1846 pronounced a solemn condemnation, which he confirmed in the words of the Syllabus directed against … 10. At the time of his death, Pius XI was reviewing an early version of an additional encyclical, Humani generis unitas (On the Unity of the Human Race), on the church, anti-Semitism, racism, and persecution of Jews. "Then at length," to use the words addressed by our predecessor, Pope Leo XIII, twenty-five years ago to the bishops of the Universal Church, "then at length will many evils be cured; then will the law regain its former authority; peace with all its blessings be restored. The State is bound to extend similar freedom to the orders and communities of religious of either sex, who give most valuable help to the Bishops of the Church by laboring for the extension and the establishment of the kingdom of Christ. The kingship and empire of Christ have been recognized in the pious custom, practiced by many families, of dedicating themselves to the Sacred Heart of Jesus; not only families have performed this act of dedication, but nations, too, and kingdoms. Would that they who forget what they have cost their Savior might recall the words: "You were not redeemed with corruptible things, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb unspotted and undefiled. This article contains a list of Encyclicals of Pope Pius XI.Pope Pius XI issued 31 Papal Encyclicals during his reign as Pope and was considering one at his death (number 32 in this list): [35] If all these truths are presented to the faithful for their consideration, they will prove a powerful incentive to perfection. Venerable Brethren, Greeting and the Apostolic Benediction. That these blessings may be abundant and lasting in Christian society, it is necessary that the kingship of our Savior should be as widely as possible recognized and understood, and to the end nothing would serve better than the institution of a special feast in honor of the Kingship of Christ. For the fulfillment of the plan of which We have spoken, the Holy Year, which is now speeding to its close, offers the best possible opportunity. 17. So, too, the feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus was instituted at a time when men were oppressed by the sad and gloomy severity of Jansenism, which had made their hearts grow cold, and shut them out from the love of God and the hope of salvation. What else is a nation but a number of men living in concord? 7. Pope Pius XI 1922 . Then gradually the religion of Christ came to be likened to false religions and to be placed ignominiously on the same level with them. info) German pronunciation: [mɪt ˈbʀɛnəndɐ ˈzɔʁɡə], "With burning concern") On the Church and the German Reich is an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, issued during the Nazi … "[17] It is Christ whom the Father "hath appointed heir of all things";[18] "for he must reign until at the end of the world he hath put all his enemies under the feet of God and the Father."[19]. 16. We would now, Venerable Brethren, in closing this letter, briefly enumerate the blessings which We hope and pray may accrue to the Church, to society, and to each one of the faithful, as a result of the public veneration of the Kingship of Christ. He reigns, too, in the wills of men, for in him the human will was perfectly and entirely obedient to the Holy Will of God, and further by his grace and inspiration he so subjects our free-will as to incite us to the most noble endeavors. In this year, as We said at the beginning of this Letter, the Divine King, truly wonderful in all his works, has been gloriously magnified, for another company of his soldiers has been added to the list of saints. Do we not read throughout the Scriptures that Christ is the King? ENCYCLICAL OF POPE PIUS XI ON THE FEAST OF CHRIST THE KING TO OUR VENERABLE BRETHREN THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHOPS, AND OTHER ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE APOSTOLIC SEE. 23. And We remember saying that these manifold evils in the world were due to the fact that the majority of men had thrust Jesus Christ and his holy law out of their lives; that these had no place either in private affairs or in politics: and we said further, that as long as individuals and states refused to submit to the rule of our Savior, there would be no really hopeful prospect of a lasting peace among nations. These give an opportunity to the people of each diocese, district or nation, and to the whole world of coming together to venerate and adore Christ the King hidden under the Sacramental species. Men must look for the peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ; and that We promised to do as far as lay in Our power. They must hunger and thirst after justice, and more than this, they must deny themselves and carry the cross. Christ as our Redeemer purchased the Church at the price of his own blood; as priest he offered himself, and continues to offer himself as a victim for our sins. 9. The empire of Christ over all nations was rejected. "Christ," he says, "has dominion over all creatures, a dominion not seized by violence nor usurped, but his by essence and by nature. [24] Not only do the gospels tell us that he made laws, but they present him to us in the act of making them. Pius XI Encyclicals [ EN - ES - FR - IT - LA] QUAS PRIMAS. The festivals that have been introduced into the liturgy in more recent years have had a similar origin, and have been attended with similar results. This kingdom is spiritual and is concerned with spiritual things. XI Achille Ratti 6.II.1922 - 10.II.1939. When we pay honor to the princely dignity of Christ, men will doubtless be reminded that the Church, founded by Christ as a perfect society, has a natural and inalienable right to perfect freedom and immunity from the power of the state; and that in fulfilling the task committed to her by God of teaching, ruling, and guiding to eternal bliss those who belong to the kingdom of Christ, she cannot be subject to any external power. 32. Quanta Cura. For during this year the God of mercy has raised the minds and hearts of the faithful to the consideration of heavenly blessings which are above all understanding, has either restored them once more to his grace, or inciting them anew to strive for higher gifts, has set their feet more firmly in the path of righteousness. Pope Pius XI (Italian: Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (Italian: [amˈbrɔ:dʒo daˈmja:no aˈkille ˈratti]; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. Thus the empire of our Redeemer embraces all men. An English translation of the Latin titles is also provided. 30. In 1937, Pius XI issued the Mit brennender Sorge encyclical which denounced the regime's breaches of the Concordat, along with the racial and nationalist idolatry which underpinned Nazi ideology. In this year, by solemnly celebrating the centenary of the Council of Nicaea. This is sufficiently clear from the scriptural testimony already adduced concerning the universal dominion of our Redeemer, and moreover it is a dogma of faith that Jesus Christ was given to man, not only as our Redeemer, but also as a law-giver, to whom obedience is due. [15] These words can only be taken to indicate the greatness of his power, the infinite extent of his kingdom. The last Sunday of October seemed the most convenient of all for this purpose, because it is at the end of the liturgical year, and thus the feast of the Kingship of Christ sets the crowning glory upon the mysteries of the life of Christ already commemorated during the year, and, before celebrating the triumph of all the Saints, we proclaim and extol the glory of him who triumphs in all the Saints and in all the Elect. This evil spirit, as you are well aware, Venerable Brethren, has not come into being in one day; it has long lurked beneath the surface. Pius XI was considered an able and strident politician who could both smile and scream at dictators throughout the world but knew enough never to attempt a compromise with them. Here it is foretold that his kingdom will have no limits, and will be enriched with justice and peace: "in his days shall justice spring up, and abundance of peace...And he shall rule from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth."[6]. The hidden encyclical of Pius XI by Georges Passelecq, 1998, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company edition, in English Francis (March 13, ... Pius XI (February 6, … The way has been happily and providentially prepared for the celebration of this feast ever since the end of the last century. Pope Paul VI published an encyclical … On May 15, 1931, exactly forty years after the publication of Rerum Novarum, Pope Pius XI issued another remarkable encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno, on the reconstruction of the social order. Moreover, the annual and universal celebration of the feast of the Kingship of Christ will draw attention to the evils which anticlericalism has brought upon society in drawing men away from Christ, and will also do much to remedy them. If We ordain that the whole Catholic world shall revere Christ as King, We shall minister to the need of the present day, and at the same time provide an excellent remedy for the plague which now infects society. By their sacred vows they fight against the threefold concupiscence of the world; by making profession of a more perfect life they render the holiness which her divine Founder willed should be a mark and characteristic of his Church more striking and more conspicuous in the eyes of all. 12. What We said at the beginning of Our Pontificate concerning the decline of public authority, and the lack of respect for the same, is equally true at the present day. It has long been a common custom to give to Christ the metaphorical title of "King," because of the high degree of perfection whereby he excels all creatures. [4] In the nuptial hymn, where the future King of Israel is hailed as a most rich and powerful monarch, we read: "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever; the scepter of thy kingdom is a scepter of righteousness. It is for this reason that St. Paul, while bidding wives revere Christ in their husbands, and slaves respect Christ in their masters, warns them to give obedience to them not as men, but as the vicegerents of Christ; for it is not meet that men redeemed by Christ should serve their fellow-men. Whether, therefore, We consider the many prayers that have been addressed to Us, or look to the events of the Jubilee Year, just past, We have every reason to think that the desired moment has at length arrived for enjoining that Christ be venerated by a special feast as King of all mankind. 27. The right which the Church has from Christ himself, to teach mankind, to make laws, to govern peoples in all that pertains to their eternal salvation, that right was denied. Not least among the blessings which have resulted from the public and legitimate honor paid to the Blessed Virgin and the saints is the perfect and perpetual immunity of the Church from error and heresy. 24. Men will see in their king or in their rulers men like themselves, perhaps unworthy or open to criticism, but they will not on that account refuse obedience if they see reflected in them the authority of Christ God and Man. 7 ] with Isaias the other Prophets are in pius xi encyclicals stable peace and tranquillity, for there be... These truths are presented to the faithful for their Divine Master, and tongues shall serve him power. Should spurn natural desires and love God above all things, and tongues shall serve him feast. 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