king) designate the person who holds supreme authority over a nation or city. David’s Successors: Kingship in the Old Testamentargues for a new reading of kingship in the Old Testament. Jesus Declares His Kingship by Cleansing the Temple (Isa. He had not only delivered Israel from bondage in Egypt and taken them to himself to be a "kingdom of priests" ( Exod 19:6 ), but he was sovereign beyond Israel's borders as the ruler over all of nature and history. The book is aimed at laypeople (church groups, college classrooms, seminary courses; p. in the north and 586b.c. He was not autonomous. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. He is to spread God’s own dominion outside the boundaries of the ordered garden of Eden so that it branches out to the farthest reaches of creation. This is seen most clearly in the commission that God gives to Adam in Genesis 1:26-30 (and repeated in Gen 2:15-17): Kingship is at the heart of the commission that God gives to Adam: he is granted dominion over all animal life on the earth (1:26); he is told to have many children in order to subdue the earth and take dominion over it (1:28). And when you saw that Nahash the king of the Ammonites came against you, you said to me, ‘No, but a king shall reign over us,’ when the Lord your God was your king.” Israel’s desire for a powerful earthly king was driven by fear and earthly-mindedness (see 1 Sam 8:4-9). So I landed in the middle of the Kings of the Divided Kingdom and got the title: “5 Good Kings and 33 Bad kings in 208 years.” Several on the campaign asked that I post my notes - so here you go: I doubt any (many) of you know these names: Elah, Zimri, Tibni, Ahizah, Athaliah, Shallum. While it is true that God alone is the ultimate king of Israel and over all of creation, human kings have a key role to play in God’s kingdom. until 721 b.c. Josiah was the last king before the exile.He destroyed all pagan idols and altars and insisted his people worship the one God. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. Saul of the Old Testament, King. In the next post we will look at how God’s kingdom develops in the Old Testament, beginning with Abraham, moving on to kingship in Israel, and ending with the exile of the northern and southern kingdoms. The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of kingship in the Ancient Near Eastern civilizations, understand the implications of the office and the function of kings before to see its application to the time of the Old Testament world. The Rights and Duties of Kingship in Israel by Marvin A. Sweeney The kings of Israel and Judah were believed to serve as Yhwh ’s agents to rule the nation. This page is also available in: हिन्दी (Hindi) King Solomon was the third and last king of the United Kingdom of Israel. The issue here is not whether kingship in itself was right or wrong for Israel. Although this book is a loose sequel to her previous book, Theological Themes of the Old Testament, it can be read as a standalone book (p. x), as it is in this review. It also offers a nuanced understanding of how New Testament authors make use of Old Testament messianic texts in explaining who Jesus is and what he came to do. In Genesis 1-2 Adam is clearly portrayed as a king. Reference is also found to numerous foreign kings whose activities affected Israel in some way. Donate Now. This juxtaposition of divine and human kingship in the Old Testament period presented ancient Israel with a duality of sovereigns. The longest reigning king of the Kingdom of Israel was Jeroboam II, who ruled for 41 years.The shortest was Zimri, who ruled only 7 days.In the Kingdom of Judah, King Manasseh ruled the longest with 55 years. Saul, David, and Solomon were kings who ruled over a united Israelite kingdom. Nonetheless, God does not abandon His intention to rule over the earth through a human king. 16). This had enormous significance. Bibliography F. F. Bruce, New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes;G. Van Groningen, Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament; D. M. Howard, Jr., TrinityJ9NS (1988): 19-35; idem, WTJ 52 (1990):101-15; G. E. Mendenhall, Int 29/2(1975):155-70; J. J. M. Roberts, Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of Frank Moor Cross, pp. In this post we will examine the kingdom of God at creation, namely in the commission God gives to Adam to rule over the earth. The Greek word translated "Christ" in our English versions of the Bible is a translation of the Hebrew term for Messiah (the anointed one). Forms of this root occur 3,154 times in the Hebrew Bible. Then a long succession of kings in both Israel (nineteen kings) and Judah (nineteen kings, one queen) ran from 931 b.c. Category: Articles. 377-96. In general, the words melek [J,l,m] (Heb. in all its fullness to as many people as possible. In a previous post I mentioned that the exact phrase “kingdom of God” does not show up in the Old Testament (although “kingdom of the Lord” does appear in 2 Chronicles 13:8; see also the talk of God’s kingdom in Daniel [for example, Dan 6:26]). God's kingship, however, contrasts with that of Israel's rulers in that God's rule is not limited to the nation of Israel. To do this also denies the close relationship that exists between the establishment of the Sinai covenant and the acknowledgment of Yahweh's kingship over Israel. He is given control over all plant life (1:29) and again over every animal on the earth (1:30). On the one hand Samuel said that Israel had sinned in asking for a king ( 1 Sam 12:17-20 ).On the other hand the Lord told Samuel to give the people a king ( 1 Samuel 8:7 1 Samuel 8:2 1 Samuel 8:22 ).Later, after Saul was chosen by lot, Samuel said, "Do you see the man the Lord has chosen?" Remember: Jesus simply announces that the kingdom is “at hand” (Matt 3:2), assuming that His hearers had some grasp of what He meant, even if He knew that they did not fully understand Him. 1–24) Resources » Asbury Bible Commentary » Part II: The Old Testament » 1 AND 2 SAMUEL » Commentary » II. You rule over all the kingdoms of the nations. While it was not wrong for Israel to desire a king (more on this below), the reason driving Israel’s request was indeed sinful. It says he "entered the temple and drove out all those who were buying and selling in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves." The question of the Old Testament's apparently ambivalent attitude toward the institution of the monarchy is rooted in the description of the rise of kingship in Israel (1 Sam. Yet in the course of time Israel also had her own human kings, the rulers in Jerusalem or Samaria who exercised their royal power to govern the nation. In the New Testament the kingship theme is carried forward and its ambiguities resolved. But Old Testament Judaism did know that God had a Son, for both David and Solomon spoke of Him. The … All rights reserved. What, then, does the Old Testament have to say about the kingdom of God? God’s people failed to rest in the fact that God was their king, and that He would protect His covenant people. All of the kings of the north are said to have"done evil in the eyes of the Lord" because they continued the worship of the golden calves in Bethel and Dan that had been begun by the northern kingdom's first king, Jeroboam 1 ( 1Kings 12:26-33 ). He is said to have begun his career playing the lute in the court of King Saul but … Proud member "If we patiently endure pain, we shall also share His Kingship; "If we disown Him, He … After Solomon's death the kingdom divided into northern (Israel) and southern (Judah) segments. We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Despite this fact, the concept of God’s kingship is present throughout the Old Testament and is vital if we are going to make sense of Jesus’ preaching about the kingdom of God. He wrote them on a scroll, which he placed in the presence of the Lord. The issue of God's attitude toward the human institution of kingship in Israel is one concerning which the biblical texts appear --on the surface--to be ambiguous. At issue was the kind of kingship Israel desired, and her reasons for wanting a king. The Ligonier Ministries site requires Javascript, but you’ve got Javascript disabled. In Psalm 2, this Sonship is related strongly to the Messiah’s Kingship. David grievously sinned in the matter of Bathsheba (2 Sam. The use of "king" and "kingship" however, is not limited to the occupants of the thrones in Samaria and Jerusalem. Jesus is the one who fulfilled the royal messianic promises of the Old Testament. Late in his reign he sinned again in taking the census of his fighting men, but again he sought theLord's forgiveness ( 2Sam 24 ). The concept originated in prehistoric times, but it continues to exert a recognizable influence in the modern world. In this sense, God reigns over His creation in and through Adam. While he is king over his people in a special sense, by virtue of his covenantal relationship to them, his kingship is at the same time universal, extending to all nations and peoples and even the natural environment. Saul had good favor with God and the people of Israel when he obeyed the Lord. In the words of the angel who spoke to Mary: "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Mos tHigh. What conditions gave rise to the idea of the coming of a future messianic king who would someday establish peace and justice in all the earth? There are no records of his life or reign outside the Bible — odd, if he was that important. In theOld Testament the most numerous references to "king" and "kingship"occur in the narratives dealing with the periods of the united and divided kingdoms of ancient Israel. Chronology of the Old Testament Kings The following table provides a harmony of the chronologies of the kings of Israel and Judah following the kingdom dividing after Solomon’s death. How was Israel to understand the relationship between their obligation to Yahweh, the divine King, on the one hand, and their obligation to the human king on the other? Kingship in Israel and other ancient Near Eastern societies is a major focus of modern scholarship and has produced fascinating results. Jesus replied, "I am, and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the rights hand of the Mighty One and coming with the clouds of heaven" ( Mark 14:62 ). This duality of sovereigns was the source of one of the major theological problems in the Old Testament period. God was the great King who ruled the universe as well as his people, Israel. The kingdom extended in the north as far as Bethel, while in the south it … 8-12). Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin ruled the shortest with 3 months both. The elders of Israel asked Samuel to give them a "king like the nations"around them ( 1 Sam8:20a ). In your hand are power and might, so that none is able to withstand you.” Or consider King Hezekiah’s exultation in Isaiah 37:16: “O Lord of hosts, God of Israel, enthroned above the cherubim, you are the God, you alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; you have made heaven and earth.” See also Psalms 93:1-2; 95:3-6; 96:10; 104; 136:1-9. Rather than presenting the kings as monsters—with the occasional angelic ruler—this study seeks a more nuanced version of kingship. In 1 Samuel 12 the prophet Samuel rebukes Israel for desiring a king that would be just like the greedy, self-serving kings of the nations surrounding Israel. In short, I argue that the Old Testament history shows that war was part of God’s gift of the land to Israel. Jacob said that royalty would arise from the tribe of Judah ( Gen 49:10 ). Athaliah was the only woman who reigned the southern kingdom.She got her power by killing all of the members of the … Your gift enables our worldwide outreach. Sacral Kingship―The Old Testament Background* Arthur E. Cundall [p.31] The subject of Divine or Sacral Kingship has been a dominant one in Old Testament studies during the past four decades. The vast majority of uses involve human kings and kingdoms. from Ben Dunson Instead, he rebels against his own sovereign, the Lord God almighty. king) and basileus [basileuv"](Gk. He reigned for 40 years (970 – 931 BCE) after King Saul and King David (1 kings11:42). David is thus termed a "man after God's own heart" ( 1 Sam 13:14 ; Acts 13:22 ), and the writer of Kings makes his reign the standard by which to assess the reigns of subsequent kings. show that in the Sinai covenant Yahweh assumes the role of the Great King, and Israel, that of his vassal. For these scholars the establishment of the monarchy represented a return to the social model of the old Bronze Age paganism of the Canaanites, and a rejection of religious foundations derived from the Mosaic formulations of the Sinai covenant. Kingship was subordinated to covenant.Israel's king was to be a covenantal king. He will not only be a descendant of David, but is also identified with deity ( Isa 7:14 ; 9:6-7 ; Jer 23:5-6 ; Ezek 36:24-28 ).During his reign wars will cease and peace and justice will be established in the earth ( Isa 2:1-5 ; 11:1-10 ; Amos 9:11-15 ).This future king came to be known as the "Messiah" (in Hebrew, "the anointed one") and longing for his appearance came to be known as messianic expectation. Jesus’ reign as ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’ (Rev. The prophets (before, during, and after the exile), however, make it clear that even with the exile God would not, and did not, abandon His intention to … HCSB, ISV, NET, LEB The mission, passion and purpose of Ligonier Ministries is to proclaim the holiness of God The Southern Kingdom consisted of 2 tribes (Judah and Benjamin). This table is adapted from Edwin R. Thiele’s work in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings with some modifications. For the most part the history of the kings of Israel and Judah is a history of failure to live up to the covenantal ideal. The Old Testament spells this out in two main ways. Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. This failure of the kings of both Israel and Judah to live up to the covenantal ideal provided the backdrop as Israel's prophets began to speak of a future king who would be a worthy occupant of the throne of David. David is revered as the most powerful and important king of Israel during biblical times. Then Samuel sent all the people away, each to his home. In short, Adam is to rule over the whole world as a subordinate king underneath God, the true king over all. In Jesus the duality of sovereigns present in the Old Testament period is eliminated. God had even provided for it in antecedent revelation. Simply put, God is the sovereign ruler of the universe. In fact, significant sections of the writings of the prophets and poets also involve the actions of the various kings of Israel and Judah. Dr. Ben C. Dunson is professor of New Testament at Reformation Bible College. The Messiah’s Sonship with God is thus related to His Messiahship. He was always obligated to submit to the law of Israel's (and his) Great King, Yahweh ( Deut 17:18-20 ; 1 Sam 12:14 ) as well as to the word of the prophet ( 1 Sam 12:23 ; 13:13 ; 1 Samuel 15:11 1 Samuel 15:23 ; 2 Sam 12:7-13 ). – –1-11 – –The peaceful and prosperous reign of King Solomon, the idolatry of King Solomon, the death of King Solomon.– – 12-22 – – The division of the people of Israel into two kingdoms, The Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. 11, 12), but in contrast to Saul when Nathan, the prophet, confronted him, he repented and sought the Lord's forgiveness ( 2 Sam 12:13 ; Psalm 51 ). 13, 15). He is the God who has come with might to reign for the Lord and satisfy the deepest needs and longings of his people (see Isa. So it is clear that in God's purpose it was right and proper for Israel to have a king. First, God is king over all of creation. His rise to power was ordained by God, and his life showed lots of promise during the early years of his rule as king. Second, the Old Testament portrays God as king over Israel in a special way. Addressing a topic of perennial interest and foundational significance, this book explores what the Old Testament actually says about the Messiah, divine kingship, and the kingdom of God. This, however, does not mean that reference to kingship is limited to narrative sections of the Old Testament. Adam, of course, fails to take dominion over the earth. Jesus fulfills all three of these roles. The tension in these chapters is evident. 1–24) As the profile of this king slowly develops it is clear that he will come as the fulfillment of the promise of an eternal dynasty to David ( 2 Sam 7 ; 23:1-7 ; Psalm 89 ; 132:11-12 ; Isa 55:3-5 ). 19:16) is an essential aspect of the gospel we believe. They wanted a king to fight their battles and give them a symbol of national unity. of Even among the kings of Judah, only Hezekiah and Josiah receive unqualified approval ( 2 Kings 18:3-7 ; 22:2 ). Two respected Old Testament scholars offer a fresh, comprehensive treatment of the messiah theme throughout the entire Old Testament and examine its relevance for New Testament interpretation. HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITE KINGDOMS Understanding kingship is essential when reading the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. concept of kingship and kingdom throughout the OT. The Kingship of David (2 Sam. David was an imperfect but true representative of the ideal of the covenantal king. King Saul was Israel’s first king and monarch. King, Kingship The terms "king" and "kingship" are common biblical words, occurring over 2, 500 times in the Old Testament and 275 times in the New Testament. As Psalm 10:16 says: “The LORD is king forever and ever; the nations perish from his land.” Or as King Jehoshaphat confesses in 2 Chronicles 20:6: “O Lord, God of our fathers, are you not God in heaven? All of this suggests, very clearly, that Israel recognized Yahweh as her Great King long before kingship was established in Jerusalem. In fact, God built human kingship into creation itself. This approach, however, does violence to the many positive biblical statements concerning God's design for the institution of kingship in the context of this sovereign plan for the redemption of his people, and ultimately for the uNIVersal triumph of peace and justice on the earth. This description was a supplement to the "law of the king" given by Moses ( Deut 17:14-20 ).Samuel then inaugurated the reign of Saul, Israel's first king, in the context of a renewal of the covenant with Yahweh ( 1 Sam11:14-12:25 ). Unfortunately Saul fell far short of living up to the requirements of his office. This is a list of every battle in the OT. Samuel proclaimed to the people the rights of kingship. It is part of my biblical-theological analysis of the theology of War in the Bible.You can find my initial summary of the OT theology of war here.. As Samuel says in 1 Sam 12:12-13: “The Lord sent Jerubbaal and Barak and Jephthah and Samuel and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and you lived in safety. It is not warranted to assert, as some have, that the title of king was not ascribed to Yahweh prior to the time of the Israelite monarchy. Contrary to the idea of certain scholars (e.g., Vatke, Gressmann, von Rad), the Old Testament does not suggest that the idea of the kingship of Yahweh was a projection derived from the human institution. Kingship in Israel was not unanticipated. What was the role of the human king in ancient Israel, and to what extent was this role realized? That just a few of the evil kings of Israel. Apr 18, 2015 Arthur E. Cundall, “Sacral Kingship―The Old Testament Background,” Vox Evangelica 6 (1969): 31-41. is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. In Jesus Christ, the God-man, human and divine kingship are united in one person. Josiah was 8 years old when he became king, and he reigned for 37 years. Fix that problem! 2 Timothy 2:12. Answer: There are three main “offices” spoken of in the Old Testament—prophet, priest, and king. The Lord, however, told Samuel to give them a different sort of king. King. Most of its authors knew no other political system and it influenced their work greatly. 40:9,10). Salem Media Group. To do this requires the late dating of explicit statements of Yahweh's kingship in texts such as Exodus 15:18; Numbers 23:21; Deuteronomy33:5; Judges 8:23; and 1 Samuel 8:7; 10:19; 12:12. Stevens teaches biblical studies at Lutheran Theological Seminary in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan ( Joshua 12:9 Joshua 12:24), whom Joshua subdued.Adonibezek subdued seventy kings ( Judges 1:7).In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king ( 1 Peter 2:13 1 Peter 2:17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also … He disobeyed the word of the Lord and rebelled against the Lord (1 Sam. Abraham was told that "kings" would arise among his descendants ( Gen17:6 ). For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement. Because of this the Lord rejected him from being king ( 1 Sam 15:23 ), and sent Samuel to annoint David in his place (1 Sam. https://www.insight.org/resources/bible/the-historical-books/first-kings , he rebels against his own sovereign, the words melek [ J, l, m (... Getty Images unless otherwise indicated continues to kingship in the old testament a recognizable influence in the Mysterious Numbers of the Old Testament God. 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