Everyone has an opinion on this, and many teachers will tell you that they ALWAYS do some strategy because they had a positive or negative experience at some point. Much work has been done based on SDS theory to identify influential factors and explore the impact of these factors on the group decision-making. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. There are two main steps involved when people face decision problems under risk: understanding the problem and making a choice. In most cases, the construction company will create a temporary bidding group for a specific project. I did not just mention groups once, but routinely brought it up. Learning orientation reflects the degree to which an organization values using and creating knowledge to survive and develop. Few studies have investigated the factors affecting group bidding decision-making systematically, and none has addressed the real world of bidding for construction projects. I understand that the convention com.companyname.projectname is used in order to avoid namespace conflicts between projects, but how should I come up with a prefix for an individual project I am starting? I inform students about the general characteristics of the project, how it will be different than other projects they completed, and that they can do the project individually or as a group. A. Olatunji, O. I. Aje, and S. Makanjuola, “Bid or no-bid decision factors of indigenous contractors in Nigeria,”, I. Ahmad and I. Minkarah, “Questionnaire survey on bidding in construction,”, A. Major, J. R. Hollenbeck, and D. J. Sego, N. Singhaputtangkul and X. Zhao, “Applying a fuzzy consensus scheme to enhance the group decision making of a building envelope design team,”, D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, “Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk,”, S. B. Sitkin and A. L. Pablo, “Reconceptualizing the determinants of risk behavior,”, C. K. Hsee and E. U. Weber, “A fundamental prediction error: self–others discrepancies in risk preference,”, C. Toma, I. Gilles, and F. Butera, “Strategic use of preference confirmation in group decision making: the role of competition and dissent,”, B. Along with learning about themselves, they would listen to me read Analogy of Working on a Team. Assessing Individual Contribution to a Group Project Raija Kuisma Abstract Group projects are commonly used in tertiary education as a learning method and a … The success of a project will depend on how efficient project teams are in executing project goals and objectives during the project management lifecycle. There were also deadlines students needed to meet and the spreadsheet helped me keep track of them. These different dimensions of an organization, that is, organizational culture, provide an organization’s identity. If you are interested in those individual discovering activities, check out, Introducing A Social Studies Class Week 1, Along with learning about themselves, they would listen to me read. In the project environment, a team implies a number of people working together to achieve a common goal, while a group of people implies a collection of individuals who, although they might be working on the same project, do not necessarily interact with each other. Also, I told the students that if they really had an idea they wanted to pursue, but no one else wanted to, then it was alright for them to work individually. Risk perception can generally be defined as the decision-maker’s assessment of the risk inherent in a situation [30] and plays a prominent role in the decisions people make [31]. Moreover, 20 factors can be classified into five groupings: (1) values and strategic goals, (2) collaboration and learning orientation, (3) consensus reaching, (4) risk awareness, and (5) empowerment and development, with risk awareness having an especially strong influence. If you are interested in those individual discovering activities, check out Introducing A Social Studies Class Week 1. I created an online spreadsheet that helped keep all of the group work organized. After the search process, 18 factors belonging to individual, group, and organizational levels were identified from the final selected articles. Properly structured, group projects can reinforce skills that are relevant to both group and individual work, including the ability to: Break complex tasks into parts and steps; Plan and manage time; Refine understanding through discussion and explanation; Give and receive feedback on performance; Challenge assumptions; Develop stronger communication skills. Hence, the data are appropriate for EFA. If the risk awareness of all decision makers is similar, it is easy to make a decision. The main reason to this result may be that the preferred project type and location are relatively steady, and that little attention is paid to increase capabilities to adapt to external change. For example, if the companies’ strategic value is to maintain a good reputation in the industry, then group members would conduct an adequate evaluation of the probability of executing a project successfully before deciding to bid for it instead of just calculating the potential profit their company would receive. This group reflects the important role of cooperation and sharing thoughts between group members in improving the quality of the group’s bidding decisions. In addition, the application of appropriate decision rules is also necessary during the group bidding decision process. During the make and break module, students test a beam until destruction. However, the opposite is the case if the decision makers have big risk awareness differences. The early groundwork that the students and I did was beneficial, but it was necessary to do more. Hello I have a project that is comprised of three different buildings that are actually on a college campus. Say a big math problem with lots of different steps; or a scene in Ulysses that could be interpreted in three or 300 different ways; or you're doing a unit on Ancient Egyptand you need your students to combine their knowledge of history with an ability to an… Thus, this factor is less important, which is confirmed by the general comments during the interviews. You'll land on a page with the Project and Client name, front and center. If the companies’ values are to trust and respect each other in their relationships, then the group members’ relationships will be closed and the group will be cohesive during its work. Individual and group projects. Of these, Denison’s organizational culture model (DOCM) is well recognized for analyzing organizational culture and has been widely applied in the construction sector [1, 45, 47]. Then, each respondent was sent the questionnaire, and a total of 216 responses were received. In addition, the factors can be assigned into five groupings: (1) values and strategic goals, (2) collaboration and learning orientation, (3) consen… This indicates that the sample size is significantly large enough for EFA. This one rule helped create diverse groups that produced original work. This grouping is mainly linked to the group level, and factors such as majority influence, number of group members, and taking expertise into account represent fundamental features of group decision-making. This can be difficult for individual projects because they do not have a communication route to the senior management team or a way in which the projects can be co-ordinated. Project Plan 1 is for teams that need the essential capabilities of managing task-oriented projects like assigning tasks and dependencies and scheduling and tracking project work using lists, boards, and timelines. However, the focus of these studies is mainly on project characteristics, the construction companies’ resources available, and economic environmental factors such as market conditions. Individual Suicide Safety Planning RCT: Actual Study Start Date : October 15, 2018: Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 3, 2022: Estimated Study Completion Date : March 3, 2023: Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine. An example of this would be the London 2012 Olympic Games in which programme management played a critical part in the success of the project. Copyright © 2018 Peng Yan et al. The “values and strategic goals” grouping comprises five factors: (1) vision, (2) goals and objectives, (3) strategic direction and intent, (4) team orientation, and (5) core values. For these reasons, this paper aims to investigate the potential factors that influence the group bidding decision-making process for construction projects. Group bidding decision-making is based on individual bidding decision-making, which is a typical kind of risky decision-making that can be viewed as a choice between prospects and gambles [29]. The key element differentiating group decision-making from individual decision-making is information exchange between group members [54, 74]. This initiative will create huge opportunities for international construction companies. How our customers are using ActiveCollab … No matter what, bring people and equipment that will help you move forward, not sink the ship. Click New. Here are a few ways to create interdependence: The specific sampling approach employed in this research is the snowball sampling method (i.e., respondent-driven sampling), in which respondents share or know others who also had experiences of group bidding decision processes involved. HIDE THIS PAPER GRAB THE BEST PAPER 95.5% of users find it useful. Table 5 presents the groupings based on varimax rotation. Bidding groups act in an organizational context and the construction companies need to set an appropriate strategic goal and ensure that employees at all levels have a clear understanding about this goal to provide direction for bidding groups’ decision-making. The processes involved in group bidding decision-making are becoming more complex due to the interactions and interdependencies among group members [27]. This grouping reflects the individual as well as the group process when making a decision under risk. The project itself is described in the actual assignment posted on the course Web site. On the one hand, group decision-making can generate higher quality decisions through communication among team members, but on the other hand, it also suffers from such issues as disagreement among group members due to groupthink [28]. This simple questionnaire asked students to reflect on their choices of group members and how those partners were going to contribute to the project. For that reason, large- and medium-sized construction companies are more likely to adopt the group bidding decision-making in preference to decisions made by individuals. The “consensus reaching” grouping comprises (1) majority influence, (2) number of group members, (3) taking expertise into account, and (4) customer focus. This grouping reflects the importance of the construction companies’ efforts in empowerment and investing employee development in guaranteeing a high group bidding decision quality and is linked to both organizational and individual levels. How does the aversion of conflict lead to a stifling of student initiative. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) can identify a relative small set of underlying factors’ groupings that can be used to analyze correlations among a large set of interdependent variables. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. On group sites, students can use group discussion boards to talk about their project, log contributions, and update the project status. Individual, Group, and Organizational Factors Affecting Group Bidding Decisions for Construction Projects, Department of Construction Management, College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin, China, School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Garden Point Campus, 2 George St., Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia. The profiles of the respondents are shown in Table 2. Moreover, their research was also adopted by subsequent research such as Hwang and Kim [22]. In addition, some studies focus on analyzing the interrelations between bidding factors or exploring effects of bidding factors on bidding results. (5)Contractor-related factors: availability of required cash, labor and equipment and subcontractors, facilities available to contractors from financial institutions, the quality of available contractors’ staff, previous experience and profit in similar projects, current workload, need for work, and need for public exposure. While project-based learning (PBL) also features projects, in PBL the focus is more on the process of learning and learner-peer-content interaction that the end-product itself. 2) The programme can balance the resources across the programme. [2], who determined critical factors to be those with normalized values equal to or greater than 0.50. The final set of factors is summarized in Table 1. The benefits of knowing how to work in small groups can also extend beyond higher education and well into the working environment. Therefore, DOCM is selected in this research to investigate the factors affecting the interactive group bidding decision-making process at the organizational level. Factors identified from the literature review and interviews. 5. Moreover, the behaviors may be influenced not only by circumstantial factors but also by risk preferences. This was a good way to improve our knowledge, presentation skills and learn from each other, since every one has a different skill set and ideas to implement. The factors that belong to different organizational levels influencing group bidding decision-making are identified as follows. Sailing can be done in a group, or by yourself. Initially, therefore, the factors were identified from three-organizational levels (individual, group, and organization) and, after a relationship analysis, they were categorized into five channels. Although the bidding group’s final decision needs be audited and approved by top managers in most construction companies, many interviewees agreed that whether the company bid for a project is largely determined by the bidding group, since their companies are quite trusting the group and rarely deny the bidding scheme. Case 1 . Influence of the grouping risk awareness is especially strong among the five groupings, with all three factors belonging to this grouping being ranked among the top four influences on decision-making. The interviews indicate that most of the senior managers of Chinese international contractors value this and point out that there will be no success unless everyone shares information. Marketing. Click on the photo to learn more about introducing a social studies classroom. The members of this kind of group are usually from different units, which may have different working habits. The group member with higher risk perception would more likely to bid low-risk projects, The group member who is more risk seeking would more likely to bid high-risk projects, Most of the group members prefer to make a bid decision that could meet their personal interest (e.g., profits and future development), The size of bidding group will affect the time of reaching consensus, and it also plays a role in the decision quality, A majority of group members often hold the power and impose their opinions on the minority during the decision-making process, The group’s ability of identification and utilizing of expertise of its members is vital to the decision-making performance, The efficient communication among group members will promote the information flow and improve the decision quality, The group’s preference determined by previous bidding experiences will impact its bidding decisions in the future, Learning orientation decreases the possibility of making wrong bidding decisions in the future, The degree of willingness of serving clients’ needs has an effect on the group’s biding decisions, The ability of adopting improved and new ways in the work impacts the group’s bidding decisions, Internalized values guide organization members’ behaviors and thus influence the group’s bidding decisions, The ability to reach agreement on difficult issues is critical to the group bidding decision performance, The degree of group members from different units working together for a common goal significantly influences the decision-making process, A clear view on the state in the future will encourage group members to take risk during the bidding decision, If clear goals are provided for group members, then the bidding group is more likely to make reasonable decisions, A clear view on long-team purpose and direction prevents group members to underestimate real risks of the current project, Group members which come from an empowered organization are willing to share their knowledge during the decision-making process, The degree of the organization emphasizing the importance of teamwork influences bidding groups’ cohesion and decision performance, The degree of the organization emphasizing the investigation of employee development influences bidding group members’ competitions and decision performances, W. W. Low, H. Abdul-Rahman, and N. Zakaria, “The impact of organizational culture on international bidding decisions: Malaysia context,”, X. Zhao, B.-G. Hwang, S. Pheng Low, and P. Wu, “Reducing hindrances to enterprise risk management implementation in construction firms,”, Y. Every project is supervised by an instructor-researcher of the department and, when possible, A video is being made to review this process and will be uploaded to this article. The company can be a stakeholder of the SGM training via the group projects in 4SGM4SGM group projectIt consist of cross-disciplinary projects in groups of 6 to 8 students. Fourthly, “involvement” is concerned with creating a sense of ownership and responsibility in order to develop greater commitment to the organization and an increased capacity for autonomy. A. Shash, “Factors considered in tendering decisions by top UK contractors,”, A. Bagies and C. Fortune, “Bid/no bid decision modelling for construction projects,” in. Lou Niles II Project Coordinator / Senior Sustainability Specialist LPA, Inc. LEEDuser Premium Member 11 thumbs up. Select either Task or Resource to specify in which list of groups you want the new group to be included. It is worthwhile to note that one of the project categories, the essay, could only be done individually, and about 10% of my students would complete an essay. What is a sensible choice of group Id for a maven project that does not fall under any company/organisation/website? Project vs. Moreover, a company highlighting learning will also create an effective information sharing system, which enables the group to eventually reach better decisions. However, most studies where potential factors are explored are in the field of psychology, and these studies generally focus on the specific kinds of influencing factors (e.g., majority and minority influences, group size, and framing) by conducting psychological experiments [16–19]. [70] and Zhao et al. There were also deadlines students needed to meet and the spreadsheet helped me keep track of them. This goal will encourage the bidding group to take risks in such decisions. Everyone has an opinion on this, and many teachers will tell you that they ALWAYS do. Advantages of Group Work (Disadvantages of not Using Individual Work) Disadvantages of Group Work (Advantages of Using Individual Work) Students learn quality skills and insights from one another, especially from the variation of work experience and relevant courses taken. Every project in Timely has a dedicated page. 3. As Mellers and Cooke [34] point out, no decision model can describe all risk decision behaviors. D. R. Ilgen, D. A. The data used to support the findings of this research are available from the corresponding author upon request. U.S. FDA Resources. Cite this document Summary … Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing. We connected respondents in the list to further verify that they have related knowledge of group bidding decisions and invite them to participate in this survey. In most cases, the international contractors will create the temporary bidding group for a specific project, and this kind of group usually includes a group leader and several technical and business experts that come from different units. Considering the limitation of existing studies, this paper identifies and analyzes potential factors affecting the bidding group’s decision-making process and provides construction practitioners with a deeper understanding of group bidding decision-making. An appropriate group size and provision of effective decision rules is helpful for the bidding group to achieve a consensus from different points of views during group discussions, and a deep understanding of each group member’s expertise is also advisable. First, this research focused on analyzing the factors belonging to different organizational levels that influence group bidding decision-making in construction projects, while ignoring such others as project factors, market factors, and government-related factors. Cons: 1. The Bartlett test of sphericity result is 412.003, with 0.000 significance, indicating that the population correlation matrix is not an identity matrix. This contains strategic direction and intent, goals and objectives, and vision. Individual Contribution To Group Project. “Team decision preference” is ranked second, indicating that nearly all the respondents’ companies have their own decision tradition that they will follow without question. Individual incentive plans reward employees for the strong contributions they personally make. The relationships between the five groupings classified in this research are also worthy of further study. 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